The Infant Protection Act of 1904 was a law developed after the 1903 Royal Commission into the Decline of the Birth Rate. That inquiry had been led by Dr Charles Mackellar and other medical specialists who were interested in reducing the high rate of infant mortality in Sydney and preventing unlicensed child care and fostering, which was popularly called 'baby-farming'. The Commissioners had recognised that unmarried mothers turned to unlicensed carers as they had to work, yet babies who were not breastfed were vulnerable to gastroenteritis and 'summer fever', which was essentially poisoning from milk that was off or adulterated.
Mackellar was passionate about reducing infant mortality in Sydney and had chaired important inquiries into the city's low birth rate, high rate of infant deaths and the risk of 'baby-farming', or unlicensed fostering of tiny babies. Mackellar knew the babies of single mothers were vulnerable, as single mothers usually had to work, so placed their young babies with unlicensed foster mothers. Proper formulas did not exist, and milk supplies were unreliable and unsafe so any baby that was not being breastfed by its mother was at risk of gastroenteritis and other illnesses. In addition, babies were often given unsuitable foods and medicines.
In 1904 Mackellar became the head of the State Children's Relief Board so introduced this law to make sure the care of babies was at a reasonable standard. During his tenure (1904-1914) he opened several State Children's Relief Board homes that were designed to keep unmarried mothers and babies together during the critical first months. Mackellar was adamant that breastfeeding was best for the health of the child, and said the strong bonds created between mother and baby during this period would help the mother, as well as motivate her to do the best for her baby's welfare during its infancy. Mackellar hoped to help mothers keep their babies after weaning, but if that could not happen, the babies had at least reached the age where they would survive being boarded out.
This Act also contained important provisions to help single mothers claim support from their child's father.
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The Find & Connect Support Service can help people who lived in orphanages and children's institutions look for their records.
08 January 2019
Cite this: https://www.findandconnect.gov.au/guide/nsw/NE00008
First published by the Find & Connect Web Resource Project for the Commonwealth of Australia, 2011
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