The Parramatta Girls Training Home was the name given in 1912 to the former Parramatta Girls Industrial School. It accommodated around 160 to 200 older girls at a time. The girls had been charged with crimes, or committed by welfare organisations. In 1946, after a public controversy, its name changed again to the Parramatta Girls Training School.
Girls were placed in Parramatta for a variety of reasons: they had been committed by welfare organisations; had been charged with crimes; were on remand or because they had not settled into foster placements or other institutions. For most of its existence, Parramatta combined the functions of training school, for girls in the welfare stream, and reformatory, for girls on criminal charges. Until 1928 it received girls as young as two years of age.
The institution at Parramatta has a long history including several name changes from 1887 to 1975. It has been estimated that up to 30,000 girls passed through Parramatta over this time; it is a significant site in Australian women's and child welfare history. Girls in the Australian Capital Territory who were charged with juvenile offences or committed to an institution under welfare laws were also sent to Parramatta.
Overcrowding within the walls of the Parramatta complex meant the lines were often blurred between the reformatory and the training school, although various attempts were made to set up specialised institutions, such as Bethel and Keller House. La Perouse was established as annexe to the Parramatta, partly to alleviate crowding. It served as a privilege home, which means being sent there was a reward for good behaviour. Discipline was lighter, and the beach environment at La Perouse, was much more pleasant than Parramatta.
Throughout the history of Parramatta Girls' Home the buildings were bleak and run down and there were riots and complaints by girls, which attracted a number of inquiries. These inquiries, held at intervals from 1889 to 1961, reveal persistent problems with overcrowding, discipline and management. They also reveal the complex and intense relationships between the girls. Oral histories of the home confirm the strong bonds that developed within the home, and the girls' awareness of abuse and exploitation.
One of the most significant inquiries into the home was the Child Welfare Council Delinquency Committee Report, which followed an inquiry by Mrs Mary Tenison-Woods. That inquiry documented mismanagement in the home, abusive punishments and other failings. It also recorded a strong subculture within the home, and the depth of relationships (both positive and negative) between the girls. Tenison-Woods advocated a range of positive measures, including better child guidance and educational opportunities for the girls.
The reaction to the Tenison-Woods inquiry was immediate. In 1946 the New South Wales Government announced that the Parramatta Girls Training Home would be renamed as the Parramatta Girls Training School and reforms would be introduced. However the buildings, and most of the staff, remained exactly the same.
The Girls Training School Precinct, 1 Fleet St, Parramatta, NSW, Australia has been listed on the Register of the National Estate since 21 March 1978.
Parramatta Girls' Home was mentioned in the Bringing Them Home Report (1997) as an institution that housed Indigenous children removed from their families.
1867 - 1871 Newcastle Industrial School for Females
1871 - 1887 Biloela Industrial School, Cockatoo Island
1887 - 1912 Parramatta Girls Industrial School
1912 - 1946 Parramatta Girls Training Home
1946 - 1974 Parramatta Girls Training School
1974 - 1983 Kamballa
Sources used to compile this entry: 'Mr. Walter Bethel', The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 March 1929. Also available at http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/16536495/1196755; 'Dismay after Parramatta's historic Norma Parker Detention Centre orphanage damaged by fire', Parramatta Advertiser, 10 January 2013, http://parramatta-advertiser.whereilive.com.au/news/story/dismay-after-historic-site-damaged-by-fire/; Arnold, Ann, 'Exposed to Moral Danger', ABC Radio National Hindsight, 19 July 2009, http://www.abc.net.au/rn/hindsight/stories/2009/2627360.htm; 'Child Care and Protection Guide', in State Records Authority of New South Wales website, State of New South Wales through the State Records Authority of NSW 2016, https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/collections-and-research/guides-and-indexes/child-care-and-protection-guide; Djuric, Bonney, Abandon All Hope: a history of Parramatta Industrial School, Chargan, Georges Terrace, 2008, 238 pp; 'Girls Training School Precinct, 1 Fleet St, Parramatta, NSW, Australia [Register of the National Estate]', in Australian Heritage Database, Department of the Environment, Australian Government Department of the Environment, http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/ahdb/search.pl?mode=place_detail;place_id=3028; Han, Esther, 'Female Factory tales to be told', The Sunday Sun-Herald, 4 November 2012, http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/female-factory-tales-to-be-told-20121103-28qub.html; 'Index to Child Care and Protection', in State Records Authority of New South Wales website, State of New South Wales through the State Records Authority of NSW 2016, https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/collections-and-research/guides-and-indexes/child-care-and-protection-index; Judy Rapley, 'Bonney Djuric', ABC Radio National Verbatim, 22 May 2008, http://www.abc.net.au/rn/verbatim/stories/2008/2236369.htm; 'Kamballa', in State Records Authority of New South Wales website, State of New South Wales through the State Records Authority of NSW 2016, https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/agency/460; New South Wales. Child Welfare Advisory Council. Delinquency Committee, A report on the Girls' industrial school, Parramatta, N.S.W. : A study in the principles and practices of child welfare administration, made by the Delinquency committee of the Child welfare advisory council, N.S.W., Tenison-Woods, Mary, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1945, 110 pp; Parramatta Female Factory Precinct, 2006-, http://www.parragirls.org.au/; Parry, Naomi, 'Such a longing': black and white children in welfare in New South Wales and Tasmania, 1880-1940, Department of History, University of New South Wales, 2007, 361 pp, http://unsworks.unsw.edu.au/fapi/datastream/unsworks:1369/SOURCE01?view=true; Quinn, Peter, '"We ask for bread and are given stone": The Girls Industrial School, Parramatta, 1941-1961', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 75, no. 2 October, 1989, pp. 158-172; Thinee, Kristy and Bradford, Tracy, Connecting Kin: Guide to Records, A guide to help people separated from their families search for their records [completed in 1998], New South Wales Department of Community Services, Sydney, New South Wales, 1998, https://insideblog.nma.gov.au/2011/02/11/connecting-kin/; Visit by Mrs May to Girls' Institution, Parramatta [Image], Date: 3 March 1939 Creator: Hood, Sam.
Prepared by: Naomi Parry
Created: 12 June 2013, Last modified: 5 September 2017